Potassium Channels Potassium channels (K+ channels) are the largest and most varied group of ion channels, being expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. cell proliferation, apoptosis, motility, and invasion. Here, we review the contribution of ion channels in the development and progression of SMYD3-IN-1 OC, evaluating their potential in clinical management. Increased expression of voltage-gated and epithelial sodium channels has been detected in OC cells and tissues and shown to be involved in malignancy proliferation and invasion. Potassium and calcium channels have been found to play a critical role in the control of cell cycle and in the resistance to apoptosis, promoting tumor growth and recurrence. Overexpression of chloride and transient receptor potential channels was found both in vitro and in vivo, supporting their contribution to OC. Furthermore, ion channels have been shown to influence the CD38 sensitivity of OC cells to neoplastic drugs, suggesting a critical role in chemotherapy resistance. The study of ion channels expression and function in OC can improve our understanding of pathophysiology and pave the way for identifying ion channels as potential targets for tumor diagnosis and treatment. and (Breast Malignancy related Antigen), which can increase the risk of OC from 1.6% to 40% and 18%, respectively [5]. Although cancers classed as ovarian are remarkably heterogeneous, more than 90% of them originate from the ovarian mesothelium [6]. Malignant cells may spread to the peritoneal fluid where they form aggregates able to implant in or onto the peritoneal cavity wall or invade other pelvic organs [7]. In the early stage, the disease is characterized by few and unspecific symptoms such as abdominal pain, swelling, or nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, which can be confused SMYD3-IN-1 with other nonmalignant conditions [8]. This means that the majority of women are not diagnosed until the disease has reached an advanced stage, associated with a poor diagnosis, when the tumor has spread to the upper abdomen, reaching lymphatic vessels and brain. Thus, early diagnosis and effective therapy are of utmost importance in order to improve survival rates. The cancer antigen 125 (CA125), historically used as a biomarker in the early diagnosis of OC, is usually no longer recommended for OC screening because it lacks in specificity and sensitivity. However, the combination of CA125 with the Human Epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and the transvaginal sonography could be effective to detect OC early and to estimate potential risk factors [9]. Regarding therapy, primary debulking surgery followed by platinum-taxane therapy has represented the standard of care in the treatment of OC for more than four decades [10], but relapse often occurs within a few months [11]. In the past decade, well-conducted clinical trials have allowed the definition of different lines of targeted therapy for individuals with OC. The introduction of concurrent bevacizumab and sequential bevacizumab and PARP inhibitors possess improved progression-free success and much less toxicity in a few OC individuals, who developed recurrence inside the first half a year of front range taxane and platinum therapies [2]. Regardless of the positive effect of these medicines in OC treatment, there’s a dependence on therapies offering longer disease-free success, for individuals whose malignancies are platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory especially. Therefore, the finding of focuses on with important features in OC development and prognosis might facilitate the introduction of novel restorative strategies. In this relative line, recent studies possess proven the contribution of ion stations in the development of varied tumors, including breasts cancer, prostate tumor, and cancer of the colon [12]. It’s been founded that ion stations impact a number of mobile processes, a lot of which are crucial for maintaining cells SMYD3-IN-1 homeostasis such as for example cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis. Modifications in stations manifestation and/or function can stimulate the change of regular cells into malignant types. The second option display uncontrolled growing and multiplication, which will be the hallmarks of tumor [13]. The word oncochannelopathy was coined to define this tight association between ion and cancer channel dysfunction [14]. Growing evidence offers recommended that ion route expression/activity may possibly also are likely involved in the pathophysiology of OC and may represent new focuses on for treatment [15]. Ion stations are pore-forming SMYD3-IN-1 membrane proteins within all human cells, whose opening enables the passive movement of chosen ions pursuing their electrochemical gradient. Ion redistribution between your.