At times of stress, the virus may become reactivated in these latent carriers. cats with respiratory disease. It should only be vaccinated against if it has been identified as a problem by a diagnostic laboratory. It is usually prevented by the use of combined vaccines containing other pathogens such as feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) or feline parvovirus (FPV). Antiviral vaccines Feline herpesvirus This computer virus causes an upper respiratory tract contamination. Symptoms include nasal discharge, rhinosinusitis, tracheitis, conjunctivitis, keratitis, oral ulceration, fever, malaise, and loss of pregnancy. Cats of all ages are susceptible, and it is especially common in multicat households and shelters. As with other herpesviruses, infected cats become lifelong latent carriers. At times of stress, the computer virus may become reactivated (+)-Longifolene in these latent carriers. In such cases, it may cause clinical disease or be transmitted to susceptible, in-contact animals. For example, the stress Vegfa of parturition may cause queens to shed the computer virus. Many inactivated adjuvanted vaccines are available against FHV, usually in combination with multiple other respiratory pathogens. These vaccines do not induce strong immunity, and as a result assessment of duration of protection is usually difficult. Modified live vaccines are available for either intranasal or intraocular administration. Intranasal vaccines may be combined with a calicivirus vaccine. Owners should be warned that cats vaccinated by the intranasal route may sneeze frequently for four to seven days after vaccination. Although antibodies may be detected three years after vaccination, these antibodies do not correlate well with protection. As with all herpesviruses, cell-mediated immunity is critical. Cats at low risk may be vaccinated every three years, but cats in catteries are at high risk and may be vaccinated more frequently at the veterinarians discretion. If a cat is to be moved to a (+)-Longifolene boarding facility it should be revaccinated one to two weeks before the move, especially if its vaccines are not current. Feline calicivirus Feline calicivirus is usually ubiquitous in cats worldwide. It causes infections that range from subclinical to oral and upper respiratory tract disease and has been considered to have high morbidity and minimal mortality. Affected cats develop oral ulcers, sneezing and a nasal discharge. Recently however, some highly virulent calicivirus biotypes have emerged. Virulent systemic feline caliciviruses strain FCV-Ari causes fever, jaundice, hemorrhage, skin necrosis, vomiting, edema, and death. Calicivirus vaccines are usually administered in combination with vaccines against other respiratory pathogens. Multiple inactivated vaccines are available. Because of concerns regarding the antigenic diversity of calicivirus strains some manufacturers produce vaccines made up of more than one strain. Most altered live vaccines currently contain the FCV-F9 strain. Some are designed for intranasal use whereas others are injectable. Because of the genetic diversity of caliciviruses however, F9 vaccines may differ in their ability to protect against heterologous strains. Although FCV-F9 is still broadly effective against current circulating strains it may not protect well against newly emerged systemic virulent strains such as FCV-Ari. It may be necessary to add additional avirulent strains to the vaccine to maintain broad coverage. Computer virus neutralizing antibodies develop in about a week after vaccination and correlate well with protection. However, vaccination does not prevent contamination and vaccinated cats can become persistently infected. Both cell-mediated immunity and mucosal immunoglobin (Ig)A also contribute to resistance. Duration of immunity is at least four years for (+)-Longifolene inactivated products and about seven years for altered live computer virus (MLV) vaccines. Intranasal vaccines may induce respiratory indicators such as sneezing for several days after vaccination in some individuals. This may result in shedding of the vaccine computer virus. However, the intranasal vaccines require only a single dose and trigger the rapid onset of immunity. They also are better able to overcome inhibition by maternal antibodies in kittens. Feline parvovirus FPV causes panleukopenia. Infected cats develop a fever followed by vomiting and possibly diarrhea. They become dehydrated, followed by hypothermia, septic shock, intravascular coagulation, and death. In addition to FPV, some canine parvovirus variants (CPV-2a, -2b, and C2c) may cause disease in cats. FPV vaccines may afford some protection in these cases. Inactivated adjuvanted FPV vaccines are invariably given with calicivirus and rhinopneumonitis vaccines. The safety of the killed FPV vaccines means that these are the preferred vaccines used in wild felids, pregnant queens, and cats immunosuppressed by retroviral infections. Both parenteral and intranasal altered live vaccines are available in combination with the other core vaccines, FCV and FHV-1. As with other such vaccines the MLV vaccines induce protection rapidly, probably.