Objectives Bone cells regeneration requires a source of viable, proliferative cells with osteogenic differentiation capacity. in primary cultures was variable between the individual samples, but was not related to the site of tissue harvesting and the patient age. In 80% of samples (n?=?5), the primary cells proliferated steadily for eight subsequent passages, reaching cumulative numbers over 1010 cells. Analyses confirmed stable gene expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin YF-2 and osteocalcin in early and late cell passages. In osteogenic medium, the cells from late passages increased alkaline phosphatase activity and accumulated mineralized matrix, indicating a mature osteoblastic phenotype. Conclusions Primary alveolar bone cells exhibited robust proliferation and retained osteogenic phenotype during expansion, suggesting that they can be used as an autologous cell source for bone regenerative therapies and various studies. Introduction Bone regeneration requires a source of viable, proliferative cells with osteogenic differentiation capacity. The cells can either be stimulated to migrate from the neighboring tissue, or delivered to the defect UPK1B site by transplantation of autologous or heterologous bone grafts or tissue-engineered (TE) bone substitutes [1], [2], [3]. A number of bone tissue engineering approaches are being investigated, where osteogenic cells, responsible for the synthesis, organization and remodeling of the new bone tissue, are combined with scaffolding materials C structural and logistic templates for cell attachment and tissue development, and growth factors – bioactive cues that mediate the cell activity [4], [5], [6]. In cases where the quantity of autologous bone tissue for transplantation is limited, implantation of viable TE-bone substitutes represents an alternative to enhance the process of bone repair [7]. In addition, development and testing of new drugs and biomaterials could benefit from using physiologically relevant human cell models, to evaluate the effects on specialized cell survival and activity [8]. For instance, recent reports of osteonecrosis of the jaw, which were associated with the use of bisphosphonates, suggest the importance of drug testing directly in tissue-specific human cell models [9], [10], [11]. Human osteogenic cells YF-2 can be isolated from various adult tissues, including bone, YF-2 bone marrow, periosteum and adipose tissue [12], [13], [14], [15]. Previous studies have indicated differences in cell yields, proliferation and osteogenic potentials between these sources [16], [17]. Also, the influences of tissue harvesting and cell isolation procedures on the cell yields and phenotypes were observed [18], [19], [20], [21]. For the planning of TE-bone substitutes, fairly large cell amounts are essential (thousands to billions), and cautious collection of harvesting and tradition conditions can considerably raise the cell produces and enhance the retention of osteogenic potential [21], [22], [23]. Preferably, autologous cells ought to be used for bone tissue tissue engineering, in order to avoid the potential risks of immune system rejection and infectious disease transmitting. Consequently, option of the source cells for cell isolation as well as the invasiveness of harvesting methods, which can bring about donor site morbidity, represent essential considerations. Periodontal surgical treatments, like the placement of dental care implants, represent a chance to procure smaller amounts of staying autologous bone tissue cells for cell isolation, without leading to additional problems for the patients. Earlier studies reveal that alveolar bone tissue may be used to isolate cells expressing quality mesenchymal surface area markers, that have the potential to endure osteogenic differentiation in suitable tradition circumstances [12], [24], [25], [26], [27]. Furthermore, TE-constructs ready from alveolar YF-2 bone tissue cells were proven to enhance bone tissue development in critical-size skull problems in immunodeficient mice [26], [28], and had been more recently utilized to take care of jaw bone tissue defects in a number of clinical case research [29], [30], [31]. Significantly, prior function also shows that osteogenic cells from the jaw bone tissue exhibit specific differentiation properties and research linked to periodontal treatment and regeneration. Nevertheless, compared to major bone tissue cells from additional anatomical locations, the consequences of tradition and isolation circumstances for the properties of major alveolar bone tissue cells, which can considerably.