Many isolated cyclic peptides have not been screened for their biological activities as the quantities obtained were very limited. under the tree sp.-[21]Psychrophilin C (6)from a soil under the tree sp.-[21]Psychrophilin D (7)ZLN-60Antiproliferative activity[22,23]Psychrophilin F (9)ZLN-60-[23]Psychrophilin G (10)ZLN-60Lipid-lowering effect[23]Psychrophilin H (11)ZLN-60-[23]Sclerotiotide A (12)PT06-1Antifungal activity[19]Sclerotiotide SNT-207707 B (13)PT06-1Antifungal activity[19]Sclerotiotide C (14)PT06-1-[19]Sclerotiotide D (15)PT06-1-[19]Sclerotiotide E (16)PT06-1-[19]Sclerotiotide F (17)PT06-1Antifungal activity[19]PT06-1-[19]Sclerotiotide H (19)PT06-1-[19]Sclerotiotide I (20)PT06-1Antifungal activity[19]Sclerotiotide J (21)PT06-1-[19]Sclerotiotide K (22)PT06-1-[19]Xyloallenolide A (23)sp. No. 2508-[27] Open in a separate window Aspochracin (1) was the first cyclic tripeptide isolated from fungi in 1969. It was obtained from the culture broth of PT06-1. Only sclerotiotides A (12), B (13), F (17) and I (20), and JBIR-15 (2) show selective antifungal activity against and species [18,20,21,22,23]. Among them, psychrophilin D (7) from show cytotoxic activity [18], psychrophilin E (8) from sp. shows antiproliferative activity [22], and psychrophilin G (10) from ZLN-60 shows lipid-lowering effects [23]. 3. Cyclic Tetrapeptides Cyclic tetrapeptides have been found in many genera such as sp.Inhibitory activity on histone deacetyl (HDAC) SNT-207707 activity, antiproliferation, cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis induction[30]Apicidin (25)mutant-[54]Apicidin F (33)sp. No. 27082Immunosuppressive activity[37]Aspercolorin (37)SCSGAF0162Cytotoxic and antiviral activity[38]Auxarthride A (39)Coprophilous fungus sp. BCC18034Antimalarial and cytotoxic activity[40]Cyclo[(2sp.Plant growth-retardant activity[41]Cyclo[2-methylalanyl-l-phenylalanyl-d-prolyl-(2sp.Plant growth-retardant activity[41]Cyclo[2-methylalanyl-l-phenylalanyl-d-prolyl-(2sp.Plant growth-retardant activity[41]sp. K38 and sp. E33Antifungal SNT-207707 activity[42]Cyclo(l-Leu-sp. K38 and sp. E33Antifungal activity[43]Cyclo(d-Pro-l-Tyr-l-Pro-l-Tyr) (47)Co-culture broth of two mangrove fungi sp. K38 and sp. E33Antifungal activity[42]Cyclo(sp.TGF–like activity[61]sp.-[51]Endolide A (55)sp. from the sponge sp.Affinity to the vaspopressin receptor 1A with a Ki of 7.04 M[64]Endolide B (56)sp. from the sponge sp.Be selevtive toward the serotonin receptor 5HT2b with a Ki of 0.77 M[64]Endolide C (57)Marine-sponge-derived sp. 293 K04-[65]Endolide D (58)Marine-sponge-derived sp. 293 K04-[65]5,5-Epoxy-MKN-349A (59)Endophytic fungus sp. GD6 from the mangrove sp. No. 27082Immunosuppressant that inhibits mammalian histone deacetylase[67,68,69]Fungisporin (61)= sp.-[73]Isotentoxin (64)sp. from the alga cf. CNL-692Inhibitory activity on histone deacetylase; cytotoxic activity[47]Microsporin B (67)cf. CNL-692Inhibitory activity on histone deacetylase; cytotoxic activity[47]Nidulanin A (68)from sp.Antitumour activity[76]PF1070B (71)sp.Antitumour activity[76]Phoenistatin (72)sp. X802Antibacterial and antiproliferative activities[49]Pseudoxylallemycin B (74)Termite-associated fungus sp. X802Antibacterial and antiproliferative activities[49]Pseudoxylallemycin C (75)Termite-associated fungus sp. X802Antibacterial and antiproliferative activities[49]Pseudoxylallemycin D (76)Termite-associated fungus sp. X802Antibacterial and antiproliferative activities[49]Pseudoxylallemycin E (77)Termite-associated fungus sp. X802-[49]Pseudoxylallemycin F (78)Termite-associated fungus sp. X802-[49]Sartoryglabramide A (79)Marine-derived KUFA 0702 from the sponge sp.-[78]Sartoryglabramide B (80)Marine-derived KUFA 0702 from the sponge sp.-[78]Tentoxin (81)sp.-[51]Tentoxin B (82)Marine-derived fungus sp. from the giant jellyfish RF-1023Detransformation activity against oncogene-transformed NIH3T3 cells[52]RF-1023Detransformation activity against oncogene-transformed NIH3T3 cells[52]WF-3161 (85)species belongs to the HC-toxin family, and contains a 2-amino-8-oxo-9,10-epoxydecanoic acid residue [29]. Other cyclic tetrapeptides such as 1-alaninechlamydocin (24), apicidin (25), chlamydocin (41), “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”FR235222″,”term_id”:”258291874″,”term_text”:”FR235222″FR235222 (60), microsporins A (66) and B (67), and trapoxins A (83) and B (84) also show inhibitory activity on HDAC [30,31]. Apicidin analogs (25C35) from species show antiprotozoal activity by inhibiting parasite HDAC [32,33,34,35]. These HDAC inhibitors were considered as the potential therapeutics for spinal muscular atrophy [36]. AS1387392 (36) from sp. No. SNT-207707 27082 showed a strong inhibitory effect against mammalian HDAC and T-cell proliferation which suggested its potential CCNA1 as immunosuppressant [37]. Asperterrestide A (38) from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived fungus SCSGAF0162 showed cytotoxicity against U937 and MOLT4 hunman carcinoma cell lines and inhibitory effects on influenza virus SNT-207707 strains H1N1 and H3N2 [38]. Chlamydocin (41) was isolated from [39] and sp. BCC18034 [40], respectively. This compound showed antimalarial and cytotoxic activities. Three chlamydocin analogs cyclo[(2sp. They all showed plant growth-retarding activity by reducing the height of rice seedlings without blotch and wilting [41]. Three cyclic tetrapeptides cyclo(Gly-l-Phe-l-Pro-l-Tyr) (45), cyclo(l-Leu-trans-4-hydroxy-l-Pro-l-Leu-sp. K38 and sp. E33. These compounds all had moderate antifungal activity against and [42,43]. Three cyclic tetrapeptides cyclo(exhibited marked inhibition on the growth of rice and lettuce seedlings, especially on their root growth, which suggested that they could be used to inhibit plant growth [45,46]. Microsporins A (66) and B (67) from the marine-derived fungus cf. CNL-692 obtained from a sample of the bryozoan sp. collected in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Both compounds showed inhibitory activity on HDAC and demonstrated cytotoxic activity against human colon adenocarcinoma (HCT-116) cells [47]. Penicopeptide A (69) was isolated from the endophytic fungus from sp. X802. Pseudoxylallemycins ACD (73C76) showed antibacterial activity against Gram-negative human-pathogenic and antiproliferative activity against human umbilical vein endothelial cells and K-562 cell lines [49]. Tentoxin (81) and its derivatives dihydrotentoxin (54) and isotentoxin (64) were important mycotoxins from spp. [50]. Tentoxin B (82) was isolated from the marine-derived fungus sp. from the giant jellyfish RF-1023 exhibited detransformation activity against oncogene-transformed NIH3T3 cells (and sp. FO-7314Chitinase inhibitor[81]Argifin (87)sp. FTD-0668Chitinase inhibitor[82,97]Aspergillipeptide D (88)Marine gorgonian-derived fungus sp. SCSIO 41501Antiviral activity[84]Asperpeptide A (89)Marine gorgonian-derived sp. XS-20090B15Antibacterial activity[98]Avellanin A (90)sp.Vasoconstriction and pressor effect[99]Avellanin B (91)sp.Vasoconstriction and pressor effect[99]Avellanin C (92)C2WU-[101]Cotteslosin A (95)sp. of LG53 from Chinese medicinal plant LG53 from Chinese medicinal plant LG53.