In the absence of a population of known to be uninfected, formal investigation of specificity in our study is impossible. tests for antibodies against EBOV subtype Zaire and MARV subtype Leiden . Maltotriose Blood samples were collected from in Ghana between January and April 2008 Maltotriose (n?=?173) from urban colonies in Accra (n?=?141) and Kumasi (n?=?10) and from Tanoboase (n?=?22) and from Accra (n?=?89) in January and February 2009. Samples from 3 were collected from Tanoboase in January 2009. The 262 samples comprised 2 from neonate, 43 from sexually immature and 217 from mature bats, with an approxiate 21 overall male bias. The 3 were adult females. Bats were trapped on return to roosting sites in mist nets. Each bat in a subsample (n?=?98) of the population in Accra was fitted with a radio transmitter (Wildlife Materials Inc., Illinois, USA). Results One pregnant adult female (#49), sampled and released in Accra in January 2008, had an IgG antibody titer against EBOV of 180, but was seronegative for MARV. All other samples were seronegative to both MARV and EBOV. The positive reactivity for EBOV was confirmed using western blot against a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of EBOV-Zaire, which was cloned and produced in an ICAM4 expression vector with His tag . Maltotriose A total of 20 g purified protein was separated in a preparative gel, followed by blotting and preparation of membrane strips (each containing 1.2C1.4 g protein). Out of five bat sera tested (Figure 1), only sample #49 Maltotriose showed a clear and strong reactivity at a serum dilution of 1100. This pregnant bat also had a neutralizing antibody titer of 180 against the 1956 Nigerian lyssavirus, Lagos bat virus (LBV), but no antibodies against Mokola virus using the 1968 Nigerian shrew (sp.) isolate . These bats were part of a large capture-mark-recapture project monitoring antibody seroprevalence to a range of pathogens and therefore no tissues were collected and insufficient heat-treated sera were available for RT-PCR. The EBOV-seropositive bat had been fitted with a radio transmitter and was last detected (using a SIKA Radio Tracking Receiver, BioTrack, Dorset, UK) in Accra in March 2009 (Figure 2) after which the colony migrated for the second time during the study. Weekly efforts were made to detect it until August 2009, but ceased due to the estimated battery life of the collar being 491 days. Therefore the animal will not be detected again even if it survives and returns to Accra from migration. Open in a separate window Figure 1 Western blot analysis using a recombinant nucleoprotein protein of EBOV-Zaire.The five bat sera (bat serum #46, 48, 49, 50 and 53, respectively) were tested at 1100. The positive control antibody (anti-RGS-His monoclonal antibody, Invitrogen, USA) in strip 6 was tested at 1600. The numbers on the left are molecular masses in kDa derived from the BenchMark Pre-stained molecular markers (Invitrogen, USA). Open in a separate window Figure 2 Weekly presence determined by radio-telemetry of the female in central Accra, Ghana.The bat was determined to be seropositive against both Ebolavirus subtype Zaire and Lagos Bat Virus (Nigeria 1956 isolate). The bat was pregnant when sampled in January 2008. Monthly mean rainfall is shown in mm (data from World Weather Information Service). Discussion The novel finding in this study was that an individual female in this region of West Africa  (Figure 2). Athough fruit bats seropositive to EBOV and MARV have been detected elsewhere, antibodies to filoviruses have not been previously demonstrated in sympatric with seropositive to EBOV and MARV , and.