For determination of cell viability by measuring the amount of ATP present in the cells, cells were seeded in 96-well plates at a concentration of 10,000 cells per 100?l using three different incubation conditions: either in presence of IL-3 or in presence of SCF or without cytokines. differentiation, proliferation and migration of early hematopoietic cells, germ cells and melanocytes and is expressed in wide range of cell types. Wild-type KIT is usually activated upon binding of its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), which leads to receptor dimerization, activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity followed by autophosphorylation of KIT. Binding of SRC Homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing proteins to phosphotyrosine residues in KIT do either positively or negatively regulate downstream signaling. Oncogenic mutations, that are found in KIT in many types of cancer and leukemia, result in dysregulated KIT activation and thus aberrant activation of downstream signaling1. The most frequently found oncogenic KIT mutation, D816V1, causes constitutive and SCF-independent activation of the receptor2. Receptor-mediated signals need to be tightly regulated and modulated in order to prevent persistent signaling under normal physiological conditions. Rabbit polyclonal to ERO1L The activity of KIT can be negatively regulated by several different mechanisms, such as protein tyrosine phosphatases that dephosphorylate the receptor or downstream targets, as well as ubiquitin-mediated degradation of the activated receptor. Here we show that this SRC-like adaptor protein 2 (SLAP2) regulates KIT stability and downstream signaling by promoting ubiquitination of KIT and its subsequent degradation. SLAP2 is an adaptor protein involved in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways3, (reviewed by4). It is expressed in several hematopoietic cell types including stem cells, platelets, monocytes, macrophages and T- and B-cells. In humans, SLAP2 is usually a 261 amino acid long protein encoded by the gene which is usually localized to chromosome 20q11.23. SLAP2 is usually a close homolog of SLAP and its structure is similar to that of the SRC family kinases (SFKs). It consists of an amino-terminal region, a?SRC Homology 3 (SH3) domain name, a SRC Homology 2 (SH2) domain name and a carboxy-terminal region, but in contrast to the SRC family members, it lacks kinase activity. The amino-terminal region can undergo posttranslational myristoylation, which enables SLAP2 to associate with the cell membrane, while the non-myristoylated SLAP2 is usually localized to the nucleus5. The SLAP2 SH3 domain name interacts with proline-rich sequences in proteins and thus mediates protein-protein interactions that regulate intracellular signal transduction pathways. The SH2 domain name is necessary for binding to phosphorylated tyrosine residues Uridine diphosphate glucose in activated receptor tyrosine kinases and other tyrosine phosphorylated proteins. In contrast to many other adapter Uridine diphosphate glucose proteins made up of both SH2 and SH3 domains, the SH3 and SH2 domains Uridine diphosphate glucose of SLAP2 adaptor protein interact Uridine diphosphate glucose with one another in an alternative mode that leads to the formation of Uridine diphosphate glucose a beta-sheet comprised of both domains. The functional integrity of both the SH2 and the SH3 domains is usually maintained in this structure6. Finally, the carboxy-terminal region mediates SLAP2 association with the ubiquitin E3 ligase CBL (Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma)5. SRC-like adaptor proteins are well established as unfavorable regulators of T-cell receptor signaling3,7 and recent studies also implicate their unfavorable role in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by promoting ubiquitin-mediated receptor tyrosine kinase degradation8. Specifically, a study from 2007 showed that SLAP2 negatively regulates signaling through the type III receptor tyrosine kinase colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R) by recruiting CBL to the activated receptor, which results in enhanced ubiquitination and degradation of the receptor9. Furthermore, we have recently shown that SLAP2 binds to and negatively regulates another type III receptor tyrosine kinase, Fms like tyrosine kinase 3, FLT310. Therefore, we hypothesized that SLAP2 might play a role in the RTK KIT. We here show that SLAP2 binds to wild-type KIT in response to SCF stimulation and is constitutively associated with the oncogenic mutant KIT-D816V. The association is mediated through the SH2 domain of SLAP2. Association of SLAP2.